The Local Economy

Overview:

During the early 20th century, the greater Kensington area contained a booming manufacturing industry.  Beginning in the 1950s, however, deindustrialization swept through Philadelphia.  Warehouses began to close, and many  Kensingtonians lost their jobs.  According to the Philadelphia Daily News, between 1979 and 1983, almost thirty years after deindustrialization roughly began, Philadelphia lost 100,000 jobs, many of which were in the Kensington neighborhood (Eisberg).

Fast forward to today.  Fishtown and Olde Richmond, contain vibrant local economies with a mix of large employers and small local businesses.  People in these communities work in jobs with upward mobility and are generally doing fairly well for themselves.  The picture in Kensington and East Kensington, however, is much bleaker.  Unemployment is high. People are working in jobs with little to no upward mobility and low salaries.  Outsiders, however, seem to be doing well in Kensington through predatory businesses like  pawn shops and check cashing stores.  The only local economy in these neighborhoods that seems to be doing well is the underground drug economy.

Employment and Unemployment Rates:

Fishtown/Olde Richmond:

Statistics Census Tract 143, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 158, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 159, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 160, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T37. Employment/Unemployment Status For Civilian Population In
Labor Force 16 Years And Over
Civilian Population In Labor Force 16 Years And Over:
861 3,158 954 4,179 9,152
Employed
791 91.9% 2,900 91.8% 786 82.4% 3,649 87.3% 8,126 88.8%
Unemployed
70 8.1% 258 8.2% 168 17.6% 530 12.7% 1,026 11.2%

Kensington/East Kensington:

Statistics Census Tract 161, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 178, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 179, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 187, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 188, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
SE:T37. Employment/Unemployment Status For Civilian Population In
Labor Force 16 Years And Over
Civilian Population In Labor Force 16 Years And Over:
2,247 2,241 2,670 616 2,923
Employed
1,879 83.6% 1,839 82.1% 2,127 79.7% 549 89.1% 2,385 81.6%
Unemployed
368 16.4% 402 17.9% 543 20.3% 67 10.9% 538 18.4%


National/Philadelphia County

Statistics United States Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
SE:T37. Employment/Unemployment Status For Civilian Population In
Labor Force 16 Years And Over
Civilian Population In Labor Force 16 Years And Over:
152,273,029 710,432
Employed
141,303,145 92.8% 624,546 87.9%
Unemployed
10,969,884 7.2% 85,886 12.1%

(This data is from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey.  Data was found using the Social Explorer database with access provided by the University of Pennsylvania Libraries).

The  average unemployment percentage in the Kensington/East Kensington section is around 18.4%, more than double the national percentage and over 5% above the unemployment rates of both Philadelphia County and the Fishtown/Olde Richmond sections of Kensington.

Photo taken by Alison Varney, December 12, 2011

Banks:

In both the well-developed and less developed parts of Kensington, there are larger banks, like Bank of America and Wells Fargo, and smaller local banks like Third Federal Bank.  All citizens in Kensington have physical access to a bank.   One cannot argue, therefore, that a reason why Fishtown and Olde Richmond citizens are generally wealthier than those in Kensington and East Kensington is because citizens in Kensington and East Kensington do not have easy access to banks.

In Kensington and East Kensington, however, there seems to be another type of financial institution that citizens use more often than traditional banks: fringe banking services like check cashing, payday loan stores, and pawn shops.  Kensington Avenue is lined with these institutions, so most of them are probably doing fairly successfully (see picture above).  There are essentially no fringe banking services in Fishtown and Olde Richmond.

Means of Transportation to Work, and What that Means:

Fishtown/Olde Richmond:

Statistics Census Tract 143, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 158, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 159, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 160, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T128. Means Of Transportation To Work For Workers 16 Years And Over
Workers 16 Years and over:
760 2,853 766 3,297 7,676
Car, truck, or van
443 58.3% 1,663 58.3% 424 55.4% 1,901 57.7% 4,431 57.7%
Public transportation (Includes Taxicab)
261 34.3% 847 29.7% 198 25.9% 960 29.1% 2,266 29.5%
Motorcycle
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Bicycle
0 0% 35 1.2% 19 2.5% 80 2.4% 134 1.8%
Walked
44 5.8% 169 5.9% 94 12.3% 237 7.2% 544 7.1%
Other means
0 0% 18 0.6% 0 0% 24 0.7% 42 0.6%
Worked at home
12 1.6% 121 4.2% 31 4.1% 95 2.9% 259 3.4%
SE:T129. Travel Time To Work For Workers 16 Years And Over
Workers 16 Years and over:
760 2,853 766 3,297 7,676
Did not work at home:
748 98.4% 2,732 95.8% 735 96.0% 3,202 97.1% 7,417 96.6%
Less than 10 minutes
82 10.8% 200 7.0% 135 17.6% 344 10.4% 761 9.9%
10 to 19 minutes
115 15.1% 714 25.0% 103 13.5% 870 26.4% 1,802 23.5%
20 to 29 minutes
256 33.7% 630 22.1% 135 17.6% 532 16.1% 1,553 20.2%
30 to 39 minutes
153 20.1% 497 17.4% 160 20.9% 832 25.2% 1,642 21.4%
40 to 59 minutes
74 9.7% 559 19.6% 144 18.8% 329 10.0% 1,106 14.4%
60 to 89 minutes
68 9.0% 107 3.8% 24 3.1% 142 4.3% 341 4.4%
90 or More minutes
0 0% 25 0.9% 34 4.4% 153 4.6% 212 2.8%
Worked at home
12 1.6% 121 4.2% 31 4.1% 95 2.9% 259 3.4%

Kensington/East Kensington:

Statistics Census Tract 161, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 178, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 179, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 187, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 188, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T128. Means Of Transportation To Work For Workers 16 Years And Over
Workers 16 Years and over:
1,833 1,797 2,101 534 2,301 8,566
Car, truck, or van
820 44.7% 1,185 65.9% 1,043 49.6% 424 79.4% 1,074 46.7% 4,546 53.1%
Public transportation (Includes Taxicab)
782 42.7% 466 25.9% 773 36.8% 48 9.0% 846 36.8% 2,915 34.0%
Motorcycle
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Bicycle
88 4.8% 0 0% 7 0.3% 12 2.3% 0 0% 107 1.3%
Walked
135 7.4% 56 3.1% 239 11.4% 38 7.1% 365 15.9% 833 9.7%
Other means
0 0% 51 2.8% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 51 0.6%
Worked at home
8 0.4% 39 2.2% 39 1.9% 12 2.3% 16 0.7% 114 1.3%
SE:T129. Travel Time To Work For Workers 16 Years And Over
Workers 16 Years and over:
1,833 1,797 2,101 534 2,301 8,566
Did not work at home:
1,825 99.6% 1,758 97.8% 2,062 98.1% 522 97.8% 2,285 99.3% 8,452 98.7%
Less than 10 minutes
111 6.1% 97 5.4% 105 5.0% 0 0% 185 8.0% 498 5.8%
10 to 19 minutes
413 22.5% 481 26.8% 388 18.5% 214 40.1% 503 21.9% 1,999 23.3%
20 to 29 minutes
309 16.9% 430 23.9% 547 26.0% 132 24.7% 386 16.8% 1,804 21.1%
30 to 39 minutes
459 25.0% 351 19.5% 611 29.1% 120 22.5% 530 23.0% 2,071 24.2%
40 to 59 minutes
162 8.8% 127 7.1% 201 9.6% 56 10.5% 186 8.1% 732 8.6%
60 to 89 minutes
208 11.4% 177 9.9% 210 10.0% 0 0% 374 16.3% 969 11.3%
90 or More minutes
163 8.9% 95 5.3% 0 0% 0 0% 121 5.3% 379 4.4%
Worked at home
8 0.4% 39 2.2% 39 1.9% 12 2.3% 16 0.7% 114 1.3%

(This data is from the 2005-2009 American Communities Survey found using the Social Explorer database.  Access to database was from the University of Pennsylvania Libraries.)

Surprisingly, citizens in the Kensington/East Kensington sections of Kensington use similar transportation methods and have similar travel times in order to get to work than do citizens in Fishtown and Olde Richmond.  Over half of the residents in all sections of the greater Kensington area use cars, trucks, or vans to get to work.  Because the Census only offers data about how people use transportation to get to work and not people’s ownership of cars in general, one cannot purport that the reason why unemployment is so high in Kensington and East Kensington is because residents do not have access to their own transportation.

One interesting point about this data, however, is that about a third of the population use public transportation of some sort to get to work.  Kensington and Fishtown’s closeness to the Market-Frankford Line and other public transportation is therefore valuable to many working Kensington citizens (More info about this in the “Relationship to Philadelphia” section of this website.)

What Kind of Jobs Do People Have?

Fishtown/Olde Richmond

Statistics Census Tract 143, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 158, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 159, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 160, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T140. Occupation For Employed Civilian Population 16 Years And Over
Employed Civilian Population 16 Years And Over:
791 2,900 786 3,649 8,126
Management, professional, and related occupations
326 41.2% 1,146 39.5% 315 40.1% 994 27.2% 2,781 34.2%
Service occupations
86 10.9% 425 14.7% 157 20.0% 845 23.2% 1,513 18.6%
Sales and office occupations:
222 28.1% 921 31.8% 110 14.0% 1,051 28.8% 2,304 28.4%
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Construction, extraction, and maintenance occupations
72 9.1% 135 4.7% 88 11.2% 258 7.1% 553 6.8%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations:
85 10.8% 273 9.4% 116 14.8% 501 13.7% 975 12.0%
Production occupations
15 1.9% 77 2.7% 37 4.7% 424 11.6% 553 6.8%
Transportation and material moving occupations:
70 8.9% 196 6.8% 79 10.1% 77 2.1% 422 5.2%

Kensington/East Kensington

SE:T140. Occupation For Employed Civilian Population 16 Years And Over
Employed Civilian Population 16 Years And Over:
Census Tract 161 1,879 Census Tract 1781,839 Census Tract 1792,127 Census Tract 187549 Census Tract 1882,385 Census Tract Average8,779  Average Percentage
Management, professional, and related occupations
377 20.1% 175 9.5% 413 19.4% 96 17.5% 342 14.3% 1,403 16.0%
Service occupations
303 16.1% 680 37.0% 448 21.1% 84 15.3% 761 31.9% 2,276 25.9%
Sales and office occupations:
474 25.2% 465 25.3% 646 30.4% 158 28.8% 560 23.5% 2,303 26.2%
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations
0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Construction, extraction, and maintenance occupations
153 8.1% 161 8.8% 218 10.3% 46 8.4% 173 7.3% 751 8.6%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations:
572 30.4% 358 19.5% 402 18.9% 165 30.1% 549 23.0% 2,046 23.3%
Production occupations
339 18.0% 223 12.1% 211 9.9% 71 12.9% 379 15.9% 1,223 13.9%
Transportation and material moving occupations:
233 12.4% 135 7.3% 191 9.0% 94 17.1% 170 7.1% 823 9.4%

(This data is from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey through the Social Explorer database.  Access to the database granted by the University of Pennsylvania Libraries.)

Analysis:

It is often difficult to analyze Census data about occupations because of the broad range of occupations that each category entails.  There are a few points, however, that can be made after comparing and contrasting the occupations throughout the different sections of Kensington.

1.  More citizens living in Fishtown and East Richmond part of Kensington are employed in management and professional occupations (34.2% vs. 16%). The management and professional occupations category includes a variety of subcategories including:

  • Management, Business, and Financial Occupations (ranging from CEOs and financial analysts to food service managers)
  •  Computer, engineering, and science occupations
  •  Education, legal, community service, arts, and media occupations.
  • Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

The management and professional occupations in general entail the highest paying jobs and jobs in fields with high chances of upward mobility.  These are the jobs held most typically by middle class and upper class citizens.  Many residents in Fishtown and Olde Richmond therefore are employed in occupations with high salaries or a good chance of upward mobility.

2. Citizens in the Kensington/East Kensington section of Kensington are much more likely to be occupied in the Production, Transportation, and Moving Occupations.  These jobs are predominantly warehouse jobs in which workers perform manual labor.  These jobs are unskilled and typically have little to no opportunity for upwards mobility.

Since deindustrialization began in the 1950s, the citizens of Fishtown and Olde Richmond have been able to find jobs in other sectors including management, service, and sales occupations.  In Kensington and East Kensington, however, many people still work in the manufacturing industries, even after those industries have lost many jobs and shrunk in size.  Because of this phenomenon among others, the unemployment rate in Kensington and East Kensington is high.

Median Salary:

Comparing the median salary in Kensington/East Kensington ($21,481) vs. that in Fishtown/Olde Richmond (45,462) confirms that citizens in Fishtown and Olde Richmond are generally employed in much higher paying occupations than are citizens in Kensington and East Kensington.

The Kensington and Allegheny Business Corridor:

Kensington/East Kensington

Taken by Alison Varney, December 12, 2011
The Kensington-Allegheny Festival, From Ruvilla.com

Historically, the blocks of Kensington immediately surrounding the intersection between Kensington Avenue and Allegheny Avenue have been the retail center for the Kensington neighborhood; this area is affectionately known as K&A.  In the past, K&A was known as a thriving business corridor for the entire Kensington area.  Presently, however,  K&A does not contain a very diverse range of businesses.  Most businesses are clothing stores,take-out restaurants, small diners, barber shops, pawn shops, and check cashing centers.    Most of the clothing stores, pawn shops, and check cashing centers are not local Kensington businesses; only a few “mom-and-pop” diners and pawn shops are owned by local Kensington citizens.

Additionally, many of the  storefronts in the K&A corridor are abandoned.  This phenomenon, however, is fairly easy to explain.  Because most people in Kensington do not have much money, most retail businesses in the K&A are not thriving.  People in the surrounding neighborhoods do not have enough money to go out to eat, much less enough to visit an art gallery.  The businesses that do prosper, like pawn shops and discount clothing boutiques, thrive because their business models are designed specifically to serve low income citizens and, in the case of pawn shops and check cashing stores, take advantage of poor citizens’ economic instability.

Fishtown and Olde Richmond’s Local Economy: Spread out, Diverse, and Strong

Fishtown and Olde Richmond do not have central commercial corridors like the K&A corridor.  Fishtown and Olde Richmond instead have a variety of businesses spread out throughout the community.  Fishtown and Olde Richmond’s local economies are extremely economically diverse and presently propserous.  Fishtown, for example, has a burgeoning arts and music scene.  The New Kensington Community Development Corporation’s 2011 business guide lists over fifty art galleries and five music venues in the Fishtown and Olde Richmond areas alone.  Fishtown has also recently seen growth in the restaurant industry.  Renowned Philadelphia restauranteur Steven Starr opened his newest venture, Frankford Hall, in Fishtown.  Fishtown and Olde Richmond’s economies are “on the rise,” and are attracting businesses to invest within those communities.

In 2010, SugarHouse Casino opened a casino in the Fishtown section of Philadelphia.  SugarHouse’s choice to invest Fishtown shows that its owners believed that Fishtown was an economically viable location to grow a business.

One Root of Kensington’s Economic Problems: Education

As illustrated below, there is a significant disparity between the educational attainment of the average Kensington/East Kensington native compared to his counterpart in the Fishtown/Olde Richmond section of Kensington.  Around 40% of Kensington and East Kensington citizens aged 25 or older as of 2009 had not received a high school diploma, and only around 6% of citizens had received a bachelors’  or an advanced degree.  In Fishtown and Olde Richmond, over 25% of citizens ages 25 and older had received a bachelors’ or an advanced degree and over 80% had received a high school diploma.

Because of a lack of education, citizens in Kensington and East Kensington are unable to enter skilled jobs that would lead to higher salaries.  Citizens are instead trapped in low-paying paying jobs (when they can find work at all).  Additionally, many citizens do not have the educational knowledge necessary to successfully run a local business.  The local economy therefore has become dominated by many businesses, some traditional and others more predatory, with leaders capable of successfully running a business.  In Fishtown and Olde Richmond, citizens generally have the education necessary to both enter high-paying careers or to start their own successful local businesses.

Educational Attainment in Fishtown/Olde Richmond:

Statistics Census Tract 143, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 158, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 159, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 160, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T25. Educational Attainment For Population 25 Years And Over
Population 25 Years and over:
1,064 4,406 1,228 5,266 11,964
Less Than High School
132 12.4% 803 18.2% 301 24.5% 925 17.6% 2,161 18.1%
High School Graduate (includes equivalency)
302 28.4% 1,485 33.7% 439 35.8% 1,810 34.4% 4,036 33.7%
Some college
193 18.1% 709 16.1% 245 20.0% 1,426 27.1% 2,573 21.5%
Bachelor’s degree
331 31.1% 1,058 24.0% 204 16.6% 903 17.2% 2,496 20.9%
Master’s degree
73 6.9% 244 5.5% 39 3.2% 161 3.1% 517 4.3%
Professional school degree
17 1.6% 90 2.0% 0 0% 41 0.8% 148 1.2%
Doctorate degree
16 1.5% 17 0.4% 0 0% 0 0% 33 0.3%

Educational Attainment in Kensington/East Kensington:

Statistics Census Tract 161, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 178, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 179, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 187, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania Census Tract 188, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania TOTAL (All Selected Census Tracts)
SE:T25. Educational Attainment For Population 25 Years And Over
Population 25 Years and over:
3,548 3,523 3,508 1,203 4,590 16,372
Less Than High School
1,349 38.0% 1,584 45.0% 1,289 36.7% 382 31.8% 1,803 39.3% 6,407 39.1%
High School Graduate (includes equivalency)
1,272 35.9% 1,420 40.3% 1,513 43.1% 507 42.1% 1,809 39.4% 6,521 39.8%
Some college
607 17.1% 361 10.3% 510 14.5% 209 17.4% 724 15.8% 2,411 14.7%
Bachelor’s degree
187 5.3% 105 3.0% 143 4.1% 105 8.7% 204 4.4% 744 4.5%
Master’s degree
100 2.8% 53 1.5% 13 0.4% 0 0% 50 1.1% 216 1.3%
Professional school degree
24 0.7% 0 0% 23 0.7% 0 0% 0 0% 47 0.3%
Doctorate degree
9 0.3% 0 0% 17 0.5% 0 0% 0 0% 26 0.2%

This data is from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey using the Social Explorer database.  Access was provided by the University of Pennsylvania Library.

Another Root: Crime

One reason why the Kensington and East Kensington areas have not attracted the same level of outside investment as have the Fishtown and Olde Richmond neighborhoods is because Kensington and East Kensington have higher levels of crime than do Fishtown and Olde Richmond.  For many businesses, investing in a crime-ridden area can be extremely risky because the company risks paying costs because of crimes like theft, vandalism, and arson.

Business Associations :

One contributor to the Fishtown area’s thriving local businesses is its business association, the Fishtown Area Business Association (FABA) for short.  FABA allows local business leaders to network and collaborate to try to expand Fishtown’s local economy.  Leaders from about fifty businesses ranging from local banks to restaurants to retail stores all belong to FABA.

The local nonprofit Impact Services (See “Nonprofits” for more details) also helps run  the Kensington and Allegheny Business Assocation, a business association that focuses on the commercial strip surrounding the intersection between Kensington and Allegheny Avenues.  KABA has a membership of over 75 members and has proven key to the success of local small businesses.  Representatives from multiple city departments such as the Philadelphia parking Authority, the Police, and the Licenses and Inspection Departments, come to KABA meetings to assist local business leaders with any areas that they need support in.  Even though KABA is a well-organized, professional organization, it has been unable to revitalize the K&A corridor to its former glory.

The Underground Economy:

Kensington and East Kensington have a thriving underground economy.  Although it is difficult to measure the amount of money produced in Kensington from drugs, it is certain that the drug trade is extremely active in Kensington and East Kensington.  Philadelphia Weekly named the intersection of Kensington Avenue and Somerset Street the number one drug corner in all of Philadelphia in 2011.

Declaring that the underground economy is decisively good or bad for Kensington is difficult.  On one hand, an underground economy creates negative externalities like increased violence. On the other hand, however, the underground economy provides many people with money necessary to survive.  If the underground economy were somehow eliminated, it would be difficult to argue that Kensington’s local economy, which already has a high level of unemployment, could support the numerous people currently employed by the underground economy.  Additionally, without income from the drug economy, many Kensingtonians who earn income from the drug economy would not be able to spend (at least as much) and thereby support other local businesses.  In other words, if the drug dealer down the street loses his job, he can no longer buy food at the local restaurant, get his hair cut at the local barber shop, or shop at the local clothing store.  On the other hand, someone could argue that eliminating the drug economy would reduce crime and lead to an overall higher quality of living, which would incentivize more businesses to enter Kensington and provide more jobs to sustain the local economy.

The success of the underground economy is largely attributable to educational issues in Kensington.  Because many citizens do not have the educational attainment necessary to enter upwardly mobile jobs that can provide considerable incomes, many citizens turn to the drug trade in hopes of making more money than they could by traditional means.

Summary:

Since deindustrialization, the Kensington/East Kensington sections of Kensington are much economically weaker than are the Fishtown/Olde Richmond areas.  The Kensington and East Kensington economies are extremely undiversified.  Additionally, the economies do not do much to benefit the citizens of Kensington and East Kensington, since many of the successful businesses are predatory financial schemes run by outsiders.   The unemployment rate in Kensington and East Kensington is extremely high, and the citizens who do work most often have low-paying jobs with few opportunities for advancement. The Fishtown and Olde Richmond neighborhoods, on the other hand, have diversified, strong economies.  In Fishtown and Olde Richmond, national chains certainly thrive.  Local businesses, however, also thrive and financially benefit citizens of Fishtown and Olde Richmond.  Fishtown and Olde Richmond has a low unemployment rate, and many citizens who do work are able to advance upwards and thereby achieve higher incomes.

Works Cited:
Eisberg, Bob. “Kensington/‌Richmond: A Difficult Rebirth after the Decline of Manufacturing, a Neighborhood Puts Its Faith in Its People.” Philadelphia Daily News 17 Dec. 1985: n. pag. Access World News. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Fishtown Area Business Association. N.p., 4 Oct. 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Frankford Hall. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
“Kensington and Allegheny Business Association.” Impact Services Corporation. N.p., 2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
New Kensington Community Development Corporation. Business Directory and Neighborhood Resource Guide. Philadelphia: Northern Liberty, 2011. Print.
SugarHouse Casino. SugarHouse HSP Gaming, L.P., 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Volk, Steve. “Top 10 Drug Corners: 2011 Edition.” Philadelphia Weekly. N.p., 24 Aug. 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.

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